Hinduism is a philosophy because it has given, through a rational analysis and in a convincing manner, knowledge about the ultimate truths behind man and the universe, as also the final goal and the path.
It has given freedom of thinking and expression to all schools and sub-schools of thought, though they may not agree among themselves. Differences of opinions are respected whereas the spiritual seekers are given the full liberty to opt any one of them.
Some Hindu philosophies are given here in brief. The respective books and the links for further reading are also given wherever possible.
The Hindu philosophy can be Darsanas. However, Darsana is more than mere intellectual speculation. It is the direct experience of the Hindu sages. They saw the truth and then wrote about it. Therefore, mere believe in any of the darsanas is insufficient. A believer must also follow it as a way of life.
The darsanas deal with four main themes:
Different views on these four themes have lead to a variety of schools. These schools are broadly divided into two classes:
The six darsanas or Saddarsanas under the Astika group are –
The three Nastika Darsanas are:
This system has laid a firm foundation for the science of Indian logic. Hence is has been called Nyayavidya, Tarkasastra and Anviksaki also. The basix text of this system is the Nyayasutras of Gautama.
According to Nyaya Darsana, the ultimate aim of a human being is to attain the state of apavarga or moksha wherein there is total cessation of all suffering. This is possible only when tattvajnana or right knowledge about apavarga and other essential is obtained.
This system was founded by the Kanada (also known as Uluka). The basic text is the Vaisesika Sutras of Kanada. This system accepts the existence of God – called Isvara or Mahesvara under whose will and guidance this world is created, sustained and destroyed. Creation is not by chance by executed by God in a planned manner, as per the karmas of the individual souls, for the proper realization of their ultimate moral perfection.
This system was founded by the sage Kapila through Sankhyasutras. According to this system, Jnana or knowledge is the only means of liberation. Sankhyan metaphysics has reduced all the realities in our experiences to two fundamental and eternal substances: the prakrti (the insentient nature) and the purusa (the conscious self or soul). This system does not accept Isvara or God.
This is the work of Patanjali called Yogasutras of Patanjali. This system accepts all the principles of the Sankhya darsana and in addition, the concept of Isvara or God. This system primarily deals with Sadhanas or spiritual disciplines. (More on this below).
If there is any system of Hindu philosophy where the Book becomes more important than the Maker of the book, it is the Mimamsa. Also called Purva Mimamsa Darsana, it primarily aims at giving a methodology of interpretation with the help of which complicated Vedic injunctions regarding rituals may be understood and given effect to. To justify the supreme authority if the Vedas, the Mimansa Darsana has developed an elaborate epistemology which has been accepted by other schools also, especially the Vedanta Darsana.
Among the Astika Darsanas, the Vedanta school had gained the most important place. The basis of this school is the Upanishads, the Brahmasutras (Vedanta Sutras) and the Bhagavadgita. These three books are called the Prasthanatraya or the three great paths. The Vedanta darsana had branched out to three well-known systems :
Sri Sankaracharya summarized the Advaita darsana as ‘Brahma Satyam jagad mityam’. There is only one reality called Brahman (the Absolute). The world and all the beings do not have a real existence. The world that we perceive is a wrong perception caused by ignorance. Brahman or Atman has been described as Nirguna (without attributes) and Nirakara (Without forms). Brahman is Sat (Eternal Reality), Chit (Pure Consciousness) and Ananda (Unalloyed Bliss).
Brahman when associated with Maya becomes Saguna Brahman (Brahman with attributes) or Isvara (God). It is this aspect of Brahman that creates, preserves and dissolves the universe.
The practice of Advaita Vedanta requires four preliminary disciplines:
Viveka – discrimination or able to differentiate between the eternal and the temporal
Vairagya – dispassion
Samadisatka – cultivation of the six attributes
Mumuksutva – desire for liberation
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The best exponent of this system was Ramanuja (A.D.1017-1137). However, the system itself is much older than Ramanuja. The twelve Alvars, Nathamuni (A.D.824-924) and Yamunacharya (A.D.918-1038) and Ramanuja evolved the system out of the teachings in the Prasthanatraya and gave it a definite shape.
The Visistadvaita system of philosophy recognizes two kinds of works as equally authoritative. They are:
It is not a dry metaphysics, but a philosophy of religion. In it, reason and faith have been nicely synthesized. It guarantees the vision of God and salvation to all finite beings – human, subhuman or celestial.
According to Ramanuja, matter, souls and God are inseparable connected. God is intra-cosmic, the Antaryamin.
This system was propagated by Madhva (A.D.1238-1317). According to this school of philosophy, the ultimate Reality is not one but many.
Brahman is different from the jivas and the prakriti. The jivas are different from one another. The various objects evolved out of prakriti also are different from one another.
God is personal, but has no physical body, no anthropomorphic form. A jiva is in samsara or bondage due to avidya or ignorance indused in him by God. Hence it is only by the grace of God that a jiva can get liberation from that bondage.
Somehow there is a general feeling that ‘Vedanta’ means the Advaita Vedanta of Sankara only. This is not correct. Many teachers who came after Sankara had established their own Vedanta traditions. The most noteworthy among them are Ramanuja, Madhva and Sri Krishna Caitanya.
According to this Bhakta School, we can attain freedom or Mukti only through devotion to God and by the grace of God. The devotional cults of Hinduism have been divided into two main streams:
Bhagavatamata is another name by which this system has been known. Vaishnavism is the philosophy and a religion centred round Vishnu.
The Narayaniya section of the epic Mahabharata (vide Santiparva, Chapters 334-351) seems to be the earliest systematization of Vaishnavism. Other sources are: Bhagavadgita, Vishnupurana, Bhagavata, Pancaratra, Vaikhanasa Agamas and Bhaktisutras of Narada and Sandilya.
The basic structure of Vaishnavism as revealed in some of the earliest sources like the Narayaniya advocated the supremacy of Visnu-Narayana as God and bhakti or devotion to Him as the chief means of moksa or liberation.
Some of the chief Acharyas of Vaishnavism are the Alwars, Ramanuja, Madhvacharya, Nimbarka, Vallabha, Kabirdas, Sri Krishna Caitanya, and Ramananda.
The credit for establishing Vaishnavism on a firm foundation and making it popular among the masses should go to Madhvacharya.
Spread of Vaisnavism
The Rama sect which was ushered in by Ramananda and Kabir, was sustained and developed by Goswami Tulasidas, Samartha Ramadas, Bhadracala Ramadas, and the great musician-saint Tyagaraja and also their disciples.
The Krishna sect is more popular and wide-spread. The saints of Maharashtra, led by Jnaneswar and followed by other saintly devotees such as Namdev, Eknath and Tukaram revolutionized the way of life of the common folk with the Panduranga-Vitthala cult. Closely akin to it and on almost parallel lines was the Krishna-Bhakti movement of the Haridasas of Karnataka like Purandaradasa, Kanakadasa and Vijayadasa. In North India, the Bhakti movement was popularised by Surdas and the queen-saint Mira.
The Bhakti movement of these musician-saints made religion simple and practical for the common people. It also successfully reclaimed many of them who had gone outside the Hindu fold.
The Alvars are Srivaisnava saints of the Tamil country. The word ‘Alvar’ literally means one who is immersed in divine love. There are twelve in number: Poygai, Pudam, Pey, Tirumolisai, Nammalvar, Kulasekhara, Periyalvar, Tondaradippodi, Tirumangai, Tiruppan, Madurakavi and Andal. Theirs was religion of ecstatic love for God. Hence, neither caste nor sex was any barrier to their attaining to that state. The Alvar moment was more emotional in nature than metaphysical.
The Alvars were great devotees of the Lord Visnu. They believe in the impermanence of worldly enjoyments and in the acquisition of liberation by union by him. They taught more by example than by precept, though they propagated the philosophy of Visistadvaita in their songs. Hence it was left to the Acharyas beginning with Nathamuni, who succeeded the Alvars, to put the system on a firm footing, basing it both upon the Sanskrit scriptures and the Tamil teachings of the Alvars. The Acaryas were orthodox Brahmanas, well versed equally in Sanskrit and Tamil. Apart from expounding the philosophy of Visistadvita, they also laid down various rules for the proper observance of festivals, fasts, vows and customs.
Visistadvaita is essentially a philosophy of religion. In it, reason and faith combined to become ‘reasoned faith’. It is often called Ubhaya Vedanta, since it accepts both the Sanskrit Prasthanatraya and the Tamil Prabandham as equally authoritative. Pancaratra treatises are also put on a par with the Vedas. Thus Srivaisnavism, with its philosophy of Visistadvaita Vedanta and the great stress laid on bhakti and prapatti, has made the path of spiritual evolution a little easier for the ordinary sadhakas or spiritual aspirants. It also has contributed to social harmony, atleast among its own ranks.
Saivisim is the religion and philosophy of those who believe that god Siva is the Supreme Being. Over the centuries Saivism branched off into several varieties of sects and cults. Six of these have left their imprint on religious history though two or three only are surviving and thriving.
Kashmir Saivism or Pratyabhijna Darsana
The basic literature of Kashmir Saivism is some of the agamas like the Svacchanda, the Netra and Vijnanabhairava. Some later compositions like Sivasutras, Spandasutra, Spandasutravrtti, Sivadrsti and Isvarapratyabhijna are some of the principle works of this school.
This system puts forward 36 tattvas or fundamental principles out of which the whole creation has evolved. They are divided into three main groups: Suddhatattvas, Suddhasuddhatattva and Asuddhatattva.
The fundamental tattva of this system is Sivatattva, generally described as Parasamvit or the highest (and pure) consciousness, the same as the Nirguna Brahman of the Advaita Vedanta. However, as against the two aspects there – the Saguna and the Nirguna aspects – there are five in this system.
This Parasamvit is the original primeval tattva from which all the other tattvas have emerged. It is eternal and ineffable.
The significant points to be noted in this system are:
The individual soul or Jivatman is called ‘pasu’ (bound soul). By practicing pratyabhijna (remembrance os his real nature as Siva himself) the jiva can get rid of all avaranas (coverings) and become one with Siva. This is called mukti or liberation.
Mukti can be attained only by service to the guru, listening to the teachings of the Sastras (holy books), reflection on them and the practice of Yoga. But the final deliverance can come only by Sivanugraha (grace of Lord Siva).
Ultimately, as per the system of Kashmir Saivism, it is Siva who covers Himself and becomes the jiva. It is Siva, again, who recognizes His real nature and ‘regains’ it as it were. Thus self-forgetfulness and self-remembrance are two scenes in the world-play of Siva!
The Pasupata Cult is based mainly on the Saivagamas, certain Puranas and a few minor Upanishads of the post-Vedic period. The period of the agamas ranges from the 1st century to 14th century. They are prevalent mostly in South India, especially Tamil Nadu.
The five basic subjects dealt with in the Pasupata literature are called Pancarathas – karana, karya, yoga, viddhi and duhkhanta.
This system is very akin to the Dvaita Vedanta system of Madhvacharya. The only difference is that Siva has taken the place of Vishnu.
Though the word ‘Saiva-siddhanta’ means the doctrine of Saivism, it has come to be particularly identified with the brand of Saivism that has been prevalent in Tamil Nadu over the last 1300 years. It is more a religion of devotional mysticism than a systematic and speculative philosophy. It is based on the compositions of the sixty-three Nayanmars of Tamil Nadhu and also the Sivasaranas of Karnataka.
The main compositions in Tamil are:
The first attempt at a systematic presentation of Tamil Saivism was by Meykandar (13th cent. A.D.) in his well-known work Sivajnanabodham. It seems to be a translation in Tamil, of a Sanskrit original.
Next in importance, considered a classic in Tamil Saivism, is the work Sivajnana-sittiyar by Arunandi, a disciple of Meykandar.
The philosophy of Saivasiddhanta is very similar to that of the Pasupata cult, the only difference being that the former accepts 36 basic principles (like Kashmir Saivism) whereas the latter only 25.
In Saivasiddhanta, Sadasiva is the Supreme God, but absolutely formless, all-pervading, extremely subtle and incomprehensible.
This sect is also known as Lingayata sect as it gives supreme importance, reverence and worship to the Sivalinga. A follower of this sect, will wear around the neck, a Sivalinga upon receiving the initiation from a guru.
The chief tenets of this faith are:
The two important books of this cult are the Devi Mahatmya and the Devi Bhagavata. The root of this cult can be traced to the Rgveda itself.
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